By Dr. Michael Cooper LaBossiere
This publication offers descriptions and examples of forty two universal casual fallacies: advert Hominem advert Hominem Tu Quoque entice the implications of a trust attract Authority entice trust attract universal perform entice Emotion entice worry attract Flattery attract Novelty entice Pity entice recognition attract Ridicule entice Spite attract culture Begging the query Biased Generalization Burden of evidence Circumstantial advert Hominem Fallacy of Composition complicated reason and influence Fallacy of department fake quandary Gambler’s Fallacy Genetic Fallacy Guilt by means of organization Hasty Generalization Ignoring a standard reason heart flooring deceptive Vividness Peer strain own assault Poisoning the good put up Hoc Questionable reason crimson Herring Relativist Fallacy Slippery Slope certain Pleading highlight Straw guy Wrongs Make a correct
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Obviously, claims made in such areas will not be very reliable. What counts as a legitimate area of expertise is sometimes difficult to determine. However, there are cases which are fairly clear cut. ” After all, his expertise is in an area which is devoid of legitimate content. The general idea is that to be a legitimate expert a person must have mastery over a real field or area of knowledge. As noted above, determining the legitimacy of a field can often be difficult. In European history, various scientists had to struggle with the Church and established traditions to establish the validity of their disciplines.
As has been demonstrated in various trials, it is possible to find one expert that will assert that an individual is insane and not competent to stand trial and to find another equally qualified expert who will testify, under oath, that the same individual is both sane and competent to stand trial. Obviously, one cannot rely on an Appeal to Authority in such a situation without making a fallacious argument. Such an argument would be fallacious since the evidence would not warrant accepting the conclusion.
This is extremely clear in the following case: “You must accept that 1+1=46, after all I’m dying…” While you may pity me because I am dying, it would hardly make my claim true. This fallacy differs from the Appeal to the Consequences of a Belief (ACB). In the ACB fallacy, a person is using the effects of a belief as a substitute for evidence. In the Appeal to Pity, it is the feelings of pity or sympathy that are substituted for evidence. It must be noted that there are cases in which claims that actually serve as evidence also evoke a feeling of pity.
42 Fallacies by Dr. Michael Cooper LaBossiere