By Kai-Uwe Lewandrowski
Advances in Spinal Fusion unearths a brand new new release of fabrics and units for greater operations in spinal fusion. This reference showcases rising learn and applied sciences in parts akin to biodegradable implants, drug supply, stem mobilephone isolation and transfection, cellphone encapsulation and immobilization, and the layout of second and 3D scaffolds for cells. It captures a cascade of concepts an important to elevated therapeutic and lowered morbidity in spinal fusion equipment and mechanics and addresses present criteria in analytical method and qc, it describes the choice of biomaterials for better biocompatibility, biostability, and structure/function relationships.
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Extra resources for Advances in spinal fusion : molecular science, biomechanics, and clinical management
These results suggest that pain relief may be achieved with volumes consistent with those needed to restore mechanical integrity ex vivo ; however, no correlation of level treated, volume injected, and clinical outcome has been explicitly reported. The volume of cement needed to produce a desired outcome still needs to be determined by carefully controlled, prospective, randomized clinical studies. A. Unipedicular versus Bipedicular Injection The ability to stabilize VBs through unipedicular injections may result in reduced procedure time and risk associated with bilateral cannulae.
In those investigations, temperatures as high as 122ЊC have been measured . However, at least one ex vivo study suggests that temperature is not a mechanism of pain relief . In that study, temperature was measured at three locations (inside the anterior cortex, in the center of the VB, and in the spinal canal) after concurrent bipedicular injection of 10 mL of PMMA cement. Although temperatures exceeded 50ЊC for more than 1 minute at the center of the VB, the authors concluded that temperature was an unlikely mechanism of pain relief for several reasons.
Cytotoxicity The methylmethacrylate (MMA) monomer component of PMMA cement is cytotoxic and therefore has been implicated as a mechanism of pain relief . Cell cultures show that MMA monomer is toxic to leukocytes and endothelial cells when concentrations exceed 10 mg/mL , but its effect on neural tissue remains unknown. During knee arthroplasty, blood serum levels immediately after cementation and tourniquet release have been measured as high as 120 g/mL but are typically much lower (Ͻ2 g/mL) and drop precipitously minutes after implantation .
Advances in spinal fusion : molecular science, biomechanics, and clinical management by Kai-Uwe Lewandrowski