By Hernandes M. E.
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At this point, it may be asked if certain parameters can be changed to decrease the measurement time to allow maps to be acquired in reasonable times. As the size of the remote aperture for most applications is smaller than 250 µm, it is valid to suggest that even smaller detectors should be installed in FT-IR microscopes, so that the SNR is optimized for samples that are 50 µm or smaller in dimension. The answer is a very practical one: it is simply very difﬁcult to keep the beam aligned with the tighter tolerance required for the beam to be focused accurately on a detector that is smaller than 250 µm.
Unlike conventional lasers, which rely on bound atomic or molecular states, FELs use a relativistic electron beam as the lasing medium, which gives them the widest frequency range of any laser type, and makes many of them widely tunable, currently ranging in wavelength from microwaves to soft X-rays. In certain respects, the FEL is similar to a synchrotron. To create a FEL, a beam of electrons is accelerated to relativistic speeds. As in the operation of a synchrotron, the beam passes through a periodic, transverse magnetic ﬁeld.
Wide-band’ detectors cut off at ∼ 450 cm−1 but are even less sensitive. Fortunately, few spectra of organic samples contain useful bands below 700 cm−1, as a result, FT-IR microscopes are almost invariably equipped with narrow-band MCT detectors. ) The greater the NEP, the lower is the sensitivity of the detector. Most detectors are speciﬁed in terms of their D* rather than their NEP. The D* of a narrow-band MCT detector is close to the value given by the background limit for infrared photons, and their performance can only be improved signiﬁcantly by switching to a liquid-helium-cooled bolometer.
Ae -codimension of germs of analytic curves by Hernandes M. E.