By William Feller
Significant adjustments during this variation contain the substitution of probabilistic arguments for combinatorial artifices, and the addition of recent sections on branching strategies, Markov chains, and the De Moivre-Laplace theorem.
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Extra info for An Introduction to Probability Theory and Its Applications, Volume 2
Investigators may change their outlook and future participation to the trial, and might even change their attitudes towards treatment of patients in the trial if he/she is aware of any interim results. This may cause a serious bias to the overall trial results. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) therefore recommends not only that the execution of the interim analysis be highly confidentiaf, but also that the investigators not be infonned about its results unless a decision to stop the trial has been made.
The summarizing data of this trial are listed in Table I. CHAPI'ER 1 52 TABLE! : one group of patients received a placebo treatment (group 1), and the four other groups received different serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI).
At one end, studying many more people than strictly necessary is a waste of time, money and resources. At the other end, embarking on a study too small to be able to answer its objectives is equally a waste of time. Calculating the required sample size is not simply stating the objective that we want to demonstrate one treatment to be better than the other. It is also necessary to state the expected size of the difference that we want to demonstrate, as a smaller study would be needed to detect a fourfold increase than a twofold one.
An Introduction to Probability Theory and Its Applications, Volume 2 by William Feller